Whatever the causes of the rising prevalence of individuals with mental illness in the criminal justice system, there is a clear need to develop and refine interventions at multiple entry points in the system. Several articles in this issue of Psychiatric Services describe and evaluate a range of diversion and treatment options that point the way to more appropriate and improved services at the interface. As a group they reinforce several take-home messages: Many persons with mental illness can and should be diverted from the criminal justice system, and there is likely no single point of diversion or program configuration to serve all people and local systems. However, it is clear that the deeper the person with mental illness penetrates the criminal justice system, or the longer the tenure there, the greater the peril. Those who cannot be diverted need better treatment than they are often afforded, although coordinating treatment across mental health and criminal justice interfaces can be daunting.