This issue includes eight studies that looked at depression from a variety of perspectives: prevalence, screening and treatment, public attitudes, depression and comorbid pain, and the effects of depression on parenting and substance use. Ramin Mojtabai, M.D., Ph.D., analyzed two years of data from the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health and found that although rates of treatment seeking have increased, many persons with major depression continue to go without needed care (page 297). An examination of depression data from the 1996 and 2006 General Social Survey by Kate H. Blumner, M.D., M.P.H., and Steven C. Marcus, Ph.D., showed that significantly more Americans now believe that depression has a biological cause and that treatment should have a biological focus, although many continue to endorse nonbiological causes such as "bad character" (page 306). Patrick J. Raue, Ph.D., and colleagues sought to determine whether patients who received their preferred treatment for depression—either medication or psychotherapy—were more adherent and had better outcomes (page 337). Bruce A. Arnow, Ph.D., and colleagues calculated the costs of general medical and psychiatric care for more than 5,800 Kaiser Permanente patients. Among the patients with major depressive disorder, costs for those with disabling chronic pain were 25% higher than costs for those with nondisabling chronic pain and 37% higher than costs for patients with major depressive disorder and no chronic pain (page 344). Finally, Gaëlle Encrenaz, Ph.D., and coauthors report findings from a large population-based study of mental health in France. Among adults who met criteria for depression, 13% of men and 5% of women reported that they used substances as a way of dealing with symptoms (page 351).