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Articles   |    
Measures of Personal Recovery: A Systematic Review
Vicki Shanks, B.Sc., M.Sc.; Julie Williams, B.Sc., M.Sc.; Mary Leamy, M.Sc., Ph.D.; Victoria J. Bird, B.Sc.; Clair Le Boutillier, B.Sc., M.Sc.; Mike Slade, Psych.D., Ph.D.
Psychiatric Services 2013; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.005012012
View Author and Article Information

The authors are affiliated with King's College London, Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry. Send correspondence to Prof. Slade at Institute of Psychiatry, Box P029, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom (e-mail: mike.slade@kcl.ac.uk).

Copyright © 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association

Abstract

Objective  Mental health systems internationally have adopted a goal of supporting recovery. Measurement of the experience of recovery is, therefore, a priority. The aim of this review was to identify and analyze recovery measures in relation to their fit with recovery and their psychometric adequacy.

Methods  A systematic search of six data sources for articles, Web-based material, and conference presentations related to measurement of recovery was conducted by using a defined search strategy. Results were filtered by title and by abstract (by two raters in the case of abstracts), and the remaining papers were reviewed to identify any suitable measures of recovery. Measures were then evaluated for their fit with the recovery processes identified in the CHIME framework (connectedness, hope, identity, meaning, and empowerment) and for demonstration of nine predefined psychometric properties.

Results  Thirteen measures of personal recovery were identified from 336 abstracts and 35 articles. The Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was published most, and the Questionnaire About the Process of Recovery (QPR) was the only measure to have all items map to the CHIME framework. No measure demonstrated all nine psychometric properties. The Stages of Recovery Instrument demonstrated the most psychometric properties (N=6), followed by the Maryland Assessment of Recovery (N=5), and the QPR and the RAS (N=4). Criterion validity, responsiveness, and feasibility were particularly underinvestigated properties.

Conclusions  No recovery measure can currently be unequivocally recommended, although the QPR most closely maps to the CHIME framework of recovery and the RAS is most widely published.

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Table 1Measures of personal recovery
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Table 2Items from 12 personal recovery measures that map to categories of the CHIME frameworka
Table Footer Note

a IMR, Illness Management and Recovery Scale; MARS, Maryland Assessment of Recovery; MHRM, Mental Health Recovery Measure; PRI, Psychosis Recovery Inventory; QPR, Questionnaire About the Process of Recovery; RAS, Recovery Assessment Scale; RMQ, Recovery Markers Questionnaire; RPI, Recovery Process Inventory; RS, Recovery Star; SISR, Self-Identified Stage of Recovery; SIST-R, Short Interview to Assess Stages of Recovery; and STORI, Stages of Recovery Instrument

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Table 3Evaluation of psychometric properties of nine measures of personal recoverya
Table Footer Note

a A positive evaluation indicated adequate demonstration of the property. IMR, Illness Management and Recovery Scale; MARS, Maryland Assessment of Recovery; MHRM, Mental Health Recovery Measure; PRI, Psychosis Recovery Inventory; QPR, Questionnaire About the Process of Recovery; RAS, Recovery Assessment Scale; RPI, Recovery Process Inventory; RS, Recovery Star; SIST-R, Short Interview to Assess Stages of Recovery; and STORI, Stages of Recovery Instrument

Table Footer Note

b Intraclass correlation coefficient

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